The answer to this question, and it is a very good question, requires a deep understanding of the social, economic, and theological history of Europe. The key question to ask is the difference in meaning between debtors and trespasses.
Usury was against church law, and so Christians were barred from charging interest. Judaism had no such law, so European monarchs and rulers encouraged Jews to immigrate to their areas of control as far back at the 12th Century to better facilitate commerce, and so Jews became the banking class across Europe. Indeed, the Age of Exploration could not have happened but for the Jewish diaspora.
The Enlightenment and the rise of Liberalism brought about significant change, especially the dramatic rise of the Merchant Class. Usury laws were challenged to free the emerging industrial class in their pursuit of profit, and "debtors" was changed to "trespasses." The idea of forgiving debts was an anathema to Christians seeking monetary wealth, and the desire to protect and make sacred private property drove this change.
I am providing a very superficial account that led to the change, and it was a change to Protestantism in particular. One needs to understand the impact of the Black Death upon Europe, the impact of the Reformation, the impact of the Age of Exploration, the impact of the Enlightenment, and several other factors.
The bottom line is that the change was made to allow Protestants to increase their wealth. It's a fascinating evolution, but understanding requires a great deal of study, but study that is worth the effort. -Lorrie Brown
Clip taken from the Strain S4e5
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