Andorra is a Co-Principality on the border of France and Spain. That means Andorra is ruled by two different Princes.
The princes are the President of France and the Bishop of the Diocese of Urgell in Spain.
A Principality is a monarchy, like a kingdom, but instead of being ruled by a king, a principality is rules by a prince. The title of prince is unrelated to be the child of a king, and is instead just a lower ranking title on the feudal ladder, but principalities are sovereign countries like any other.
Andorra as a country is a relic of feudalism and a time when the catholic church would have lots of influence over the lands of europe. The Bishop of Urgell took control of Andorra in Medieval Times but required help in protecting it, so he enlisted the help of local feudal lords. Eventually Andorra was turned into a Principality with two co-equal princes, the Bishop of Urgell and the feudal Lord that protected it.
As is the case with Feudalism, this responsibility was passed around to different feudal lords such as the count of Foix, the King of Navarre, and finally the king of France, who, because of Feudalism, was also the Count of Foix and King of Navarre and the prince of Andorra.
During the French Revolution, the new Republic of France renounced its right to a co-princehood of Andorra because they were against the feudalism that made the co-principality of Andorra exist.
However, Napoleon restored the title to himself. Since them the head of state of France has always been one of the two princes, and the other one always being the Bishop of Urgell.
This lead to the awkward situation of the President of France being a feudal lord. In 1993, Andorra adopted a modern constitution which ended feudalism and made Andorra a constitutional monarchy, albeit a weird one where it has two princes, one being the head of state of another country and the other being a bishop.
Thanks to M-Ray Usa for helping with pronounciations: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCax6YbZeEqL3f17HsDd3otg?&ab_channel=M-RayUsa
Russian Federation Explained: https://youtu.be/qVoHAyEwhBc
Why countries are landlocked: https://youtu.be/YtYoLLQTLFQ
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